HVPE method

Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) is currently the most common approach for manufacturing the vast majority of commercially available GaN substrates. This technique allows a relatively high growth rate (100-200 μm/h), but suffers from a phenomenon known as parasitic nucleation.

The HVPE method involves crystallization at ambient pressure with GaN deposited on a foreign substrate through the reaction of ammonia (NH3) with gallium chloride at temperatures of about 1300 K. Etching and self lift-off techniques are used to remove the GaN from the foreign substrate and yield a free-standing GaN substrate. Deposition on foreign substrates enables the growth of large-diameter GaN crystals, but these suffer from lattice bowing. This stems from significant differences between the lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients of the foreign substrate and the nitride film. The bowing radii of crystallographic planes can be below 10 m. This relatively low number means that there is little benefit in using HVPE-grown GaN as a seed for subsequent crystallization runs.

Recently, it has been shown how to overcome this issue and grow crystallographically flat, free-standing HVPE-GaN by using structurally perfect ammonothermally grown GaN crystals as seeds. A few following presentations about HVPE growth of GaN allow to explain better this technology.

Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy(HVPE) growth method

Highly resistive HVPE GaN Highly resistive HVPE GaN

LPE Growth – Single Seed Configuration High Purity In HVPE

LPE Growth – Single Seed Configuration LPE Growth – The Multi Feed Seed Configuration

Method and Experimental Setup Spontaneous Crystallization

More articles in this field:

R. Kucharski, T. Sochacki, B. Lucznik, M. Bockowski "Growth of bulk GaN crystals" Journal of Applied Physics (aug 2020)
Ferdinand Scholz, Michal Bockowski, Ewa Grzanka "GaN-Based Materials" (aug 2020)
Karolina Grabianska, Piotr Jaroszynski, Aneta Sidor, Michal Bockowski, Malgorzata Iwinska "GaN Single Crystalline Substrates by Ammonothermal and HVPE Methods for Electronic Devices" Electronics (aug 2020)
R. Piotrzkowski, M. Zajac, E. Litwin-Staszewska, M. Bockowski "Self-compensation of carbon in HVPE-GaN:C" Appl. Phys. Lett. (jul 2020)
Qiang Liu, Naoki Fujimoto, Jian Shen, Shugo Nitta, Atsushi Tanaka, Yoshio Honda, Zlatko Sitar, Michał Boćkowski, Yoshinao Kumagai, Hiroshi Amano "Lattice bow in thick, homoepitaxial GaN layers for vertical power devices" Journal of Crystal Growth (jun 2020)
M. Amilusik, D. Wlodarczyk, A. Suchocki, M. Bockowski "Micro-Raman studies of strain in bulk GaN crystals grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on ammonothermal GaN seeds" Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (may 2019)
Malgorzata Iwinska, Marcin Zajac, Boleslaw Lucznik, Michal Fijalkowski, Mikolaj Amilusik, Tomasz Sochacki, Elzbieta Litwin-Staszewska, Ryszard Piotrzkowski, Izabella Grzegory, Michal Bockowski "Iron and manganese as dopants used in the crystallization of highly resistive HVPE-GaN on native seeds" Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (may 2019)
M. Amilusik, T. Sochacki, M. Fijalkowski, B. Lucznik, M. Iwinska, A. Sidor, H. Teisseyre, J. Domagała, I. Grzegory, M. Bockowski "Homoepitaxial growth by halide vapor phase epitaxy of semi-polar GaN on ammonothermal seeds" Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (may 2019)
Tomasz Sochacki, Sakari Sintonen, Jan Weyher, Mikolaj Amilusik, Aneta Sidor, Michal Bockowski "Synchrotron radiation X-ray topography and defect selective etching analysis of threading dislocations in halide vapor phase epitaxy GaN crystal grown on ammonothermal seed" Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (may 2019)
M. Bockowski, M. Iwinska, M. Amilusik, B. Lucznik, M. Fijalkowski, E. Litwin-Staszewska, R. Piotrzkowski, T. Sochacki "Doping in bulk HVPE-GaN grown on native seeds highly conductive and semi-insulating crystals" Journal of Crystal Growth (oct 2018)
M. Iwinska, N. Takekawa, V.Yu. Ivanov, M. Amilusik, P. Kruszewski, R. Piotrzkowski, E. Litwin-Staszewska, B. Lucznik, M. Fijalkowski, T. Sochacki, H. Teisseyre, H. Murakami, M. Bockowski "Crystal growth of HVPE-GaN doped with germanium" Journal of Crystal Growth (dec 2017)
M. Iwinska, R. Piotrzkowski, E. Litwin-Staszewska, V. Yu. Ivanov, H. Teisseyre, M. Amilusik, B. Lucznik, M. Fijalkowski, T. Sochacki, N. Takekawa, H. Murakami, M. Bockowski "Crystallization of semi-insulating HVPE-GaN with solid iron as a source of dopants" Journal of Crystal Growth (oct 2017)
Michal Bockowski, M Iwinska, M Amilusik, B Lucznik, M Fijalkowski, E Litwin-Staszewska, R Piotrzkowski, Tomasz Sochacki "(Invited) Growth and Characterization of Bulk HVPE-GaN Pathway to Highly Conductive and Semi-Insulating GaN Substrates" ECS Trans. (oct 2017)
Malgorzata Iwinska, Ryszard Piotrzkowski, Elzbieta Litwin-Staszewska, Tomasz Sochacki, Mikolaj Amilusik, Michal Fijalkowski, Boleslaw Lucznik, Michal Bockowski "Highly resistive C-doped hydride vapor phase epitaxy-GaN grown on ammonothermally crystallized GaN seeds" Appl. Phys. Express (dec 2016)
B. Lucznik, M. Iwinska, T. Sochacki, M. Amilusik, M. Fijalkowski, I. Grzegory, M. Bockowski "Growth of HVPE-GaN on native seeds numerical simulation based on experimental results" Journal of Crystal Growth (dec 2016)
M. Iwinska, T. Sochacki, M. Amilusik, P. Kempisty, B. Lucznik, M. Fijalkowski, E. Litwin-Staszewska, J. Smalc-Koziorowska, A. Khapuridze, G. Staszczak, I. Grzegory, M. Bockowski "Homoepitaxial growth of HVPE-GaN doped with Si" Journal of Crystal Growth (dec 2016)
J.Z. Domagala, J. Smalc-Koziorowska, M. Iwinska, T. Sochacki, M. Amilusik, B. Lucznik, M. Fijalkowski, G. Kamler, I. Grzegory, R. Kucharski, M. Zajac, M. Bockowski "Influence of edge-grown HVPE GaN on the structural quality of c-plane oriented HVPE-GaN grown on ammonothermal GaN substrates" Journal of Crystal Growth (dec 2016)
M Bockowski, M Iwinska, M Amilusik, M Fijalkowski, B Lucznik, T Sochacki "Challenges and future perspectives in HVPE-GaN growth on ammonothermal GaN seeds" Semicond. Sci. Technol. (aug 2016)
T. Sochacki, M. Amilusik, M. Fijalkowski, B. Lucznik, J.L. Weyher, I. Grzegory, R. Kucharski, M. Iwinska, M. Bockowski "Examination of growth rate during hydride vapor phase epitaxy of GaN on ammonothermal GaN seeds" Journal of Crystal Growth (dec 2014)
Tomasz Sochacki, Mikolaj Amilusik, Michal Fijalkowski, Malgorzata Iwinska, Boleslaw Lucznik, Jan L. Weyher, Grzegorz Kamler, Robert Kucharski, Izabella Grzegory, Michal Bockowski "Examination of defects and the seeds critical thickness in HVPE-GaN growth on ammonothermal GaN seed" Phys. Status Solidi B (dec 2014)
T. Sochacki, M. Amilusik, B. Lucznik, M. Fijalkowski, J.L. Weyher, G. Nowak, B. Sadovyi, G. Kamler, R. Kucharski, M. Iwinska, I. Grzegory, M. Bockowski "HVPE-GaN growth on misoriented ammonothermal GaN seeds" Journal of Crystal Growth (oct 2014)
Tomasz Sochacki, Zachary Bryan, Mikolaj Amilusik, Milena Bobea, Michal Fijalkowski, Isaac Bryan, Boleslaw Lucznik, Ramon Collazo, Jan L. Weyher, Robert Kucharski, Izabella Grzegory, Michal Bockowski, Zlatko Sitar "HVPE-GaN grown on MOCVD-GaN/sapphire template and ammonothermal GaN seeds: Comparison of structural, optical, and electrical properties" Journal of Crystal Growth (may 2014)
Tomasz Sochacki, Mikolaj Amilusik, Boleslaw Lucznik, Michal Fijalkowski, Janusz Ludwik Weyher, Bohdan Sadovyi, Grzegorz Kamler, Grzegorz Nowak, Elzbieta Litwin-Staszewska, Aleksander Khachapuridze, Izabella Grzegory, Robert Kucharski, Marcin Zajac, Roman Doradzinski, Michal Bockowski "Preparation of free-standing GaN substrates from GaN layers crystallized by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on ammonothermal GaN seeds" Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (apr 2014)
Tomasz Sochacki, Zachary Bryan, Mikolaj Amilusik, Ramon Collazo, Boleslaw Lucznik, Jan L. Weyher, Grzegorz Nowak, Bogdan Sadovyi, Grzegorz Kamler, Robert Kucharski, Marcin Zajac, Roman Doradzinski, Robert Dwilinski, Izabella Grzegory, Michal Bockowski, Zlatko Sitar "Preparation of Free-Standing GaN Substrates from Thick GaN Layers Crystallized by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy on Ammonothermally Grown GaN Seeds" Appl. Phys. Express (jul 2013)
Tomasz Sochacki, Mikolaj Amilusik, Boleslaw Lucznik, Michal Boćkowski, Janusz L. Weyher, Grzegorz Nowak, Bogdan Sadovyi, Grzegorz Kamler, Izabella Grzegory, Robert Kucharski, Marcin Zajac, Robert Doradzinski, Robert Dwilinski "HVPE-GaN growth on ammonothermal GaN crystals" Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices VIII (mar 2013)

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